Applying Positive Discipline in School and Adolescents’ Self-esteem

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-1-11

Keywords:

adolescence, positive discipline, self-esteem, school, teachers, students’ social competencies

Abstract

Starting from the general principles of the concept of positive discipline, the paper points out that schools and teachers can significantly contribute to the application of positive discipline to affect different aspects of a student’s personality development. The potentials of applying positive discipline in the school for developing adolescents’ self-esteem are particularly emphasized. Accordingly, this paper will present the results of a study that aimed to establish a correlation between assessing the presence of positive discipline in a school context and the level of adolescents’ self-esteem. The survey included a convenience sample of 195 high school students from three high schools - art, technical, and grammar school. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the scale for assessing the presence of positive discipline in the school were used to collect the data. The results showed that adolescents exhibit a high level of self-esteem, while their assessment of the presence of positive discipline in school is moderate. Also, it was found that with the increase in the assessment of the presence of positive discipline in school, the level of adolescents’ self-esteem increased, and the statistically significant moderating role of the measured variables was found only in the type of high school. The conclusion points to the need to sensitize teachers to manage the classroom according to the principles of positive discipline, as well as the importance of creating the conditions that, through the phenomenon of positive discipline, effectively raise the quality of schoolwork as a whole.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdel-Khalek, A. (2016). Introduction to the Psychology of self-esteem. In F. Holloway (Ed.), Self-esteem: perspectives, influences, and improvement strategies (pp. 1-23). New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Adler, A. (2009). Understanding life: An introduction to the Psychology of Alfred Adler. UK: Oneworld.

Ames, N. L., & Miller, E. (1994). Changing middle schools, how to make schools work for young adolescents. California: Jossey-Bass Publishers.

Baumeister, R. F., Campbell, J. D., Krueger, J. I., & Vohs, K. D. (2003). Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles. Psychological Science in the Public Interest 4(1), 1-44. https://doi.org/10.1111%2F1529-1006.01431

Bej, M. (2016). Social Skills and Programs of Positive Discipline in School Environment – A Literature Review. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2 S1), 84-87. http://dx.doi.org/10.5901/mjss.2016.v7n2s1p84

Burden, P. (2016). Classroom Management: Creating a Successful K-12 Learning Community. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Chadsey, T., & McVittie, J. (2006). The Positive Discipline School. Positive Discipline Association. Retrieved from: https://positivediscipline.org/resources/Documents/PDSbrchr-8-06.pdf

Charles, C. M., & Senter, G. W. (2005). Building classroom discipline. Boston: Pearson.

Deci, E. L., Schwartz, A. J., Sheinman, L., & Ryan, R. M. (1981). An Instrument to assess adults’ orientations toward control versus autonomy with children: Reflexion on intrinsic motivation and perceived competence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(5), 642-650. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.73.5.642

Deci, E. L., Spiegel, N. H., Ryan, R. M., Koestner, R., & Kauffman, M. (1982). Effects of performance standards on teaching styles: Behavior of controlling teachers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 74(6), 852-859. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0663.74.6.852

Demirdag, S. (2015). Classroom management and students’ self-esteem: Creating positive classrooms. Educational Research and Reviews, 10(2), 191-197. https://doi.org/10.5897/ERR2014.2000

Dobrescu, A. (2013). Adolescent self-esteem. Bulletin of the Transilvania University of Braşov, Series VII: Social Sciences and Law, (2), 139-144.

Dumont, M., & Provost, M. A. (1999). Resilience in adolescents: Protective role of social support, coping strategies, self-esteem, and social activities on experience of stress and depression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 28(3), 343-363. https://doi.org/10.1023/a:1021637011732

Durrant, J. E. (2010). Positive discipline in everyday teaching: Guidelines for educators. Save the Children Sweden.

Durrant, J. E. (2013). Positive discipline in everyday parenting. Ottawa, ON: Save the Children Sweden.

Furlong, M. J., Whipple, A. D., Jean, G. S., Simental, J., Soliz, A., & Punthuna, S. (2003). Multiple contexts of school engagement: Moving toward a unifying framework for educational research and practice. The California School Psychologist, 8(1), 99-113. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03340899

Gutvajn, N., & Džinović, V. (2019). Identitet neuspešnog učenika. [The identity of an unsuccessful student]. Belgrade: Institute for Pedagogical Research.

Hansford, B. C., & Hattie, J. A. (1982). The relationship between self and achievement/performance measures. Review of Educational Research, 52(1), 123-142. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543052001123

Harter, S. (1986). Cognitive-developmental processes in the integration of concepts about emotions and the self. Social cognition, 4(2), 119-151. https://doi.org/10.1521/soco.1986.4.2.119

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychology Bulletin, 112(1), 64-105. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64

Haynes, N. M., Emmons, C., & Ben-Avie, M. (1997). School climate as a factor in student adjustment and achievement. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 8(3), 321–329. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532768xjepc0803_4

Hewitt, J. P. (2009). Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Johnston, L. D., & O’Malley, P. M. (1986). Why do the nation’s students use drugs and alcohol: Self-reported reasons from nine national surveys. Journal of Drug Issues 16(1), 29-66. https://doi.org/10.1177/002204268601600103

Kazdin, A. E., French, N. H., Unis, A. S., Esveldt-Dawson, K., & Sherick, R. B. (1983). Hopelessness, depression, and suicidal intent among psychiatrically disturbed inpatient children. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 51(4), 504-510. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006x.51.4.504

Kususanto, P., Ismail, H. N., & Jamil, H. (2010). Students’ self-esteem and their perception of teacher behavior: A study of between-class ability grouping. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 8(2), 707-724. https://doi.org/10.25115/ejrep.v8i21.1395

Leung, S. O. (2011). A comparison of psychometric properties and normality in 4-, 5-, 6-, and 11-point Likert scales. Journal of Social Service Research, 37(4), 412-421. https://doi.org/10.1080/01488376.2011.580697

Luciana, M. (2010). Adolescent brain development: Current themes and future directions. Introduction to the special issue. Brain and Cognition, 72(1), 1-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandc.2009.11.002

Manning, M. A. (2007). Self-concept and self-esteem in adolescents. Student services, 2, 11-15. Retrieved from: https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Self-Concept-and-Self-Esteem-in-Adolescents-Manning/5367523293360cf1fd39a4da7a7f4e7e27bfcbaa

McVittie, J. (2003). Research Supporting Positive Discipline in Homes, Schools, and Communities. Positive Discipline Association. Retrieved from: https://positivediscipline.org/resources/Documents/ResearchSupportingPositiveDisciplineinHomesSchoolsandCommunities.pdf

Nelsen, J. (1979). The effectiveness of Adlerian parent and teacher study groups in changing child maladaptive behavior in a positive direction. University of San Francisco, San Francisco, California. Retrived from: https://positivediscipline.org/resources/Documents/TheEffectivenessOfAdlerianParentandTeacherStudyGroups.pdf

Nelsen, J. (2006). Positive Discipline: The Classic Guide to Helping Children Develop Self-Discipline, Responsibility, Cooperation, and Problem-Solving Skills. New York: Ballantine Books.

Nelsen, J. (2007). Cómo educar con firmeza y cariño: disciplina positiva. [How to educate with firmness and kindness: Positive discipline]. Barcelona: Médici.

Oberle, E., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Zumbo, B. D. (2011). Life satisfaction in early adolescence: Personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences. Journal of youth and adolescence, 40(7), 889-901. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-010-9599-1

Osher, D., Bear, G. G., Sprague, J. R., & Doyle, W. (2010). How can we improve school discipline? Educational researcher, 39(1), 48-58. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X09357618

Osterman, K. F. (2000). Students’ need for belonging in the school community. Review of educational research, 70(3), 323-367. https://doi.org/10.3102/00346543070003323

Papalia, E. D., & Olds, W. S. (1995). Human development 5th edition. New York: Mcgraw-Hill College.

Paulson, S. E., Marchant, G. J., & Rothlisberg, B. A. (1998). Early adolescents’ perceptions of patterns of parenting, teaching, and school atmosphere: Implications for achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 18(1), 5-26.

Robins, R. W., Trzesniewski, K. H., Tracy, J. L., Gosling, S. D., & Potter, J. (2002). Global self-esteem across the life span. Psychology and aging, 17(3), 423-434. https://doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.17.3.423

Robins, R. W., Hendin, H. M., & Trzesniewski, K. H. (2001). Measuring global self-esteem: Construct validation of a single-item measure and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Personality and social psychology bulletin, 27(2), 151-161. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167201272002

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Stacy, A. W., Newcomb, M. D., & Bentler, P. M. (1992). Interactive and higher-order effects of social influences on drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour. 33(3), 226-241. https://doi.org/10.2307/2137353

Tashakkori, A., Thompson, V. D., Wade, J., & Valente, E. (1990). Structure and stability of self-esteem in late teens. Personality and individual differences, 11(9), 885-893. https://doi.org/10.1016/0191-8869(90)90268-v

Thorne, A., & Michaelieu, Q. (1996). Situating adolescent gender and self‐esteem with personal memories. Child Development, 67(4), 1374-1390. https://doi.org/10.2307/1131706

Unesco (2006). Positive discipline in the inclusive, learning-friendly classroom: a guide for teachers and teacher. Retrieved from: https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000149284

Uslu, F., & Gizir, S. (2017). School Belonging of Adolescents: The Role of Teacher-Student Relationships, Peer Relationships and Family Involvement. Educational sciences: theory & practice, 17(1), 63-82. https://doi.org/10.12738/estp.2017.1.0104

Wells, E. L., & Rankin, J. H. (1983). Self-concept as a mediating factor in delinquency. Social Psychology Quarterly 46(1), 11-22. https://doi.org/10.2307/3033656

Whitlock, J. L. (2006). Youth perceptions of life at school: Contextual correlates of school connectedness in adolescence. Applied Developmental Science, 10(1), 13-29. https://doi.org/10.1207/s1532480xads1001_2

Zeigler-Hill, V., & Myers, E. M. (2012). A review of gender differences in self-esteem. In S. P. McGeown (Ed.). Psychology research progress. Psychology of gender differences (pp. 131-143). Hauppauge, NY, US: Nova Science Publishers.

Published

2021-04-20

How to Cite

Zuković, S., & Stojadinović, D. (2021). Applying Positive Discipline in School and Adolescents’ Self-esteem. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 9(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.23947/2334-8496-2021-9-1-1-11