International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) <p><strong>Serial type:</strong> Journal</p> <p><strong>Format:</strong> Electronic version</p> <p>Starting with Volume 10 Issue 2 2022 IJCRSEE will be published only in the electronic version with eISSN.</p> <p>ISSN 2334-8496 (Online)</p> <p><strong>Web site:</strong> <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Editor:</strong> Dr. Lazar Stosic, PhD (Editor-in-Chief)</p> <p><strong>Frequency:</strong> 3 issues per year (April, August and December)</p> <p><strong>Start year:</strong> 2013.</p> <p><strong>The DOI prefix</strong> allotted for IJCRSEE is 10.23947</p> <p><strong>Content type:</strong> Academic/Scholarly</p> <p><strong>Language:</strong> English</p> <p><strong>Key features:</strong> Abstracted and Indexed, Refereed, Peer-reviewed.</p> <p><strong>Status:</strong> Active</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>cognitive, science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, linguistics, anthropology, education, pedagogy, psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, cognition.</p> <p><strong>Publisher:</strong> The Association for the Development of Science, Engineering and Education, Serbia, <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Co-publisher: </strong></p> <p>- <strong>Don State Technical University - DSTU, Rostov on Don, Russia</strong> - <a href=""></a></p> <p><strong>Licensing History:</strong><br /><img src="" width="296" height="107" /></p> <p>Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (<a href="">CC BY</a>) has been used starting with Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, while previous issues of the journal were distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial–NoDerrivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND).</p> <p><img src="" alt="" width="84" height="42" /></p> <p>In previous Volumes, till Volume 8 Issue 2 2020, we used Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International <a href="">CC-BY-NC-ND </a>.</p> <p><strong>Editorial description:</strong> </p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE) is an international, high quality, peer reviewed open access journal which publishes articles in all areas of cognitive science, perception, natural language understanding, inference, memory processes, learning, problem solving, planning, connectionism, and other areas of interdisciplinary concern related to education, pedagogy and psychology.</p> <p>The main objective of the Journal is to discuss global prospects and innovations concerning major issues of cognitive science, to publish new scientific results of cognitive science research, including the studies of cognitive processes, emotions, perception, memory, thinking, problem solving, planning, education and teaching, language and consciousness study, the results of studying man’s cognitive development and the formation of basic cognitive skills in everyday life. The Journal seeks to stimulate the initiation of new research and ideas in cognitive science for the purpose of integration and interaction of international specialists in the development of cognitive science as interdisciplinary knowledge.</p> <p>IJCRSEE particularly welcomes articles on the results of scientific research in various fields of cognitive science (psychology, artificial intelligence, linguistics, philosophy and neuroscience) catering for international and multidisciplinary audience. Readers include those in cognitive psychology, special education, education, adult education, educational psychology, school psychology, speech and language, and public policy.</p> <p>Highest priority is given to research reports that are specifically written for a multidisciplinary audience. The audience is primarily researchers in cognitive science and its associated fields, including anthropologists, education researchers, psychologists, philosophers, linguists, computer scientists, neuroscientists, and roboticists. The journal specializes in extensive articles that have a major impact on cognitive theory and provide new theoretical advances in cognitive research in education.</p> <p>International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE<strong>) is currently the only journal</strong> which focuses on the investigation of cognitive research in many areas primarily in education.</p> en-US (Lazar Stošić) (Aneta Barakoska) Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:08 +0200 OJS 60 Instruments of Empathy-Shaping in the Creation of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence <p>Empathy as a human trait that gives the ability to understand, respect, and share the feelings of other people is one of the most important elements in building a secure society and a culture of peace and non-violence. The level of empathy in individuals is influenced by endogenous and exogenous factors, and it has an affective and cognitive dimension. The aim of this paper is to investigate the concept of empathy, the extent of influence of endogenic and exogenous factors, to investigate the influence of three main elements in the development of empathy in children and youth, namely family, school, and media, and to investigate the degree of correlation between empathy and creation and maintaining a culture of peace and nonviolence. The methods used in this paper are quantitative and qualitative content analysis, comparative analysis, historical method, analogy method, and analysis of primary and secondary sources. The research confirmed the importance of empathy in the development of a culture of tolerance, dialogue, respect for opposing opinions and goals, respect for diversity, and non-violent response to conflicts. All these elements are simultaneously elements of a culture of peace and non-violence, and therefore the conclusion is that empathy is one of the preconditions for building a culture whose goal is a safer and more humane society that provides greater security from physical destruction than a culture of war and aggressive problem-solving. The authors conclude this paper with recommendations for the three main pillars of shaping empathy in children, namely family, school, and the media. </p> Aleksandar M. Filipović, Momčilo B. Bajac, Ivana Spaić Copyright (c) 2022 Aleksandar M. Filipović, Momčilo B. Bajac, Ivana Spaić Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Trends in the Implementation of the Istanbul Convention <p>Violence against women and domestic violence has attracted a lot of attention of the scientific community over the last 30 years. During that period, this topic assumed a very important place in all international agendas and was tackled by the most important international organizations and associations. The Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence, i.e. the Istanbul Convention, is one of the basic international documents which has had an influence on numerous legislations of European countries in the field of gender equality and domestic violence. The aim of this paper is to show by a comparative method and through analysis and review of available literature the advantages of the Istanbul Convention and its importance for gender equality through a review of the literature, and also to point out the criticisms attributed to it. Research results have shown that the difference between sex and gender equality is a stumbling block and a serious objection in countries with traditional, nationalist and hard autocratic regimes. Also, most European countries have fully implemented the Istanbul Convention in their legislation and thus significantly contributed to gender equality and protection of women from abuse and domestic violence. The discussion shall focus on the importance of adopting a new convention or resolution at the level of the United Nations (UN), which would cover all contentious issues related to violence against women and domestic violence, and which would be binding on all members.</p> Boro Merdović, Željko Bjelajac, Milan Počuča Copyright (c) 2022 Boro Merdović, Željko Bjelajac, Milan Počuča Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Burnout Among Students of Technical Faculties in Serbia – A Case Study <p class="Default" style="text-align: justify; text-justify: inter-ideograph;">Even though university students are not employees of the faculties, their academic duties (attending classes, taking exams, writing term papers and essays, and so on) can be considered as forms of work, whereby they engage socially with their teachers and other students, which is why student burnout has come into increased focus of numerous studies. The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between gender, tuition fee status, and year of study and burnout among the students of basic academic studies at one of the public faculties in southern Serbia (N=194) using the School Burnout Inventory (SBI-U 9). The obtained results indicate that moderate exhaustion, cynicism, and the feeling of inadequacy are related to moderate burnout of the majority of the students. It has been determined that gender influences one burnout dimension – exhaustion, while the students’ tuition fee status is related to cynicism and inadequacy, as is their year of study. This study also found that high degree of burn-out increases with the years of study. </p> Vesna Miltojević, Ivana Ilić Krstić, Andjelija Orlić Copyright (c) 2022 Vesna D. Miltojević, Ivana Lj. Ilić Krstić, Andjelija N. Orlić Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Editorial <p>Editorial</p> Dr. Lazar Stošić Copyright (c) 2022 Dr. Lazar Stošić Thu, 01 Sep 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Visual Discrete Format: An Alternative to Likert-Type Formats of Survey Items Sensitive Enough to Measure Small Changes in Stable Constructs Such as Self-Concept in Science <p>A visual discrete format was developed for use in surveys as an alternative to a Likert-type format to measure changes in a relatively stable construct before and after an intervention. Visitors to a science centre ranging in age from 8 years old upwards were asked to complete surveys that included a seven-item questionnaire scale on self-concept in science using either the Likert-type format (n=446) or the visual discrete format (n=375), before and after their visit. A new set of statements to assess self-concept in science were developed and validated so they could be conducted on either format. Matched responses were used to calculate internal consistency, standard deviation, confidence interval and percentage of missing values; these were all similar for both formats. In the visual discrete format, text labels were replaced by visual labels with a single image of different size for each response option. While a Likert-type format describes a level of agreement/disagreement with a specific item, the visual discrete format relates more to choosing the best reflection of the self in relation to that item. The Likert-type format included a set of emoji in its descriptions to appeal to younger participants. The visual discrete questionnaire scale detected a small increase with medium effect size in self-concept in science after the visit to the science centre while the Likert-type questionnaire scale did not detect any change. This suggests the proposed new format can not only be a viable and useful alternative, but potentially more sensitive under certain conditions. </p> Daniel Solis, David Hutchinson, Nancy Longnecker Copyright (c) 2022 Daniel Solis, David Hutchinson, Nancy Longnecker Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Study of Japanese University Students Influenced by the Covid-19 Pandemic and their Awareness with Their One’s Own Face <p>In 2019, an outbreak of novel coronavirus infection (hereafter referred to as Covid-19) occurred, and on January 16, 2020, the first case of an infected person was confirmed in Japan. Now that more than two years have passed, the world is gradually returning to normal. However, the increased use of Social Networking Services (SNS) and web conferencing tools has caused young people, who are accustomed to seeing filtered faces, to become dissatisfied and uncomfortable with their own real faces. This has resulted in an increased number of young people who have become dissatisfied and mentally stressed with their facial features and expressions. Therefore, the author conducted a study on young people aged 18–20 years old in 2022 regarding this issue. The author evaluated the changes in awareness one’s own face between the Covid-19 pandemic and the present among students attending Japanese universities, despite being affected by Covid-19 in the latter half of their high school or college years. The results indicated that 49.2% of the respondents revealed that their awareness their own faces had changed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Based on these findings, it is necessary for educators and parents to take considerable actions, so that young people do not become obsessed with the quality of their facial features and feel unduly stressed. Furthermore, young people should not be ashamed of their real, unfiltered faces.</p> Nozomi Komiya Copyright (c) 2022 Nozomi Komiya Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Cross-Cultural Differences in Perceived Stress of the COVID-19 Pandemic in Schoolchildren from Russia and Kyrgyzstan With Normal and High Levels of Anxiety and Depression <p>Children and youth of school age form a special population group highly sensitive to various stressors and negative effects in everyday life. The COVID-19 pandemic crisis characterized by uncertainty, vulnerability, changes in quality of life together with urgent transition to distant/online learning affected significantly psychological well-being of children and youth. The aim of this study was to assess the cross-cultural differences in actual stress in Russian and Kyrgyz schoolchildren with high and low levels of anxiety and depression during the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic and after a year life during the pandemic. The descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted via an online survey completed by total 1834 schoolchildren aged from 13 to 18 from Russia and Kyrgyzstan, the periods of survey: 10th May - 10th June, 2020; 18th May -15th June, 2021. The Perceived Stress Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were used to assess stress, anxiety and depression scores. The findings suggest that there are cross-cultural differences in perceived stress amongst schoolchildren with high level of depression and anxiety: Russian respondents in 2021 demonstrated less pronounced index of the perceived stress than Kyrgyz schoolchildren. The stress level of Kyrgyz schoolchildren increased significantly in 2021 in comparison to the period of outbreak of the pandemic. In 2021 in both countries we found the same pattern: girls had significantly more pronounced stress than boys. The results disclose important aspects of the impact of COVID-19 on schoolchildren and demonstrate the emerging need of psychological aid and for supporting schoolchildren mental health.</p> Maria Sitnikova, Ekaterina Proshina, Alena Deviaterikova, Sergey Malykh, Oksana O. Moiseeva, Marina Ananieva Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Sitnikova, Ekaterina Proshina, Alena Deviaterikova, Sergey Malykh, Oksana O. Moiseeva, Marina Ananieva Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Using Social Media Network by Special Education Teachers <p>This study aimed at identifying the use of the social media network (Facebook) and its relationship to psychological compatibility of special education teachers by answering four questions that include all the variables of the current study. The study used the descriptive approach and developed a scale to reveal the relationship of Facebook use and psychological compatibility. The psychological scale was applied to a random sample of special education teachers (n=520), who constitute 18% from the study population in Aseer region. The results of the study showed that the period that special education teachers spend using Facebook that received the highest frequency was less than two hours per day. The results revealed that the level of psychological compatibility among special education teachers, who use Facebook was high. There was a negative relationship between the period that special education teachers spend using Facebook and the level of psychological compatibility. The results also indicated that there were no statistically significant differences attributed to the effect of gender on the period of use of Facebook among special education teachers.</p> Yaser Numan Al Sabi, Samar Abdulwahab Jaradat, Firas Ahmad Saleem Al Taqatqa, Mohamad Ahmad Saleem Khasawneh Copyright (c) 2022 Mohmmad khasawneh Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 The Development of Critical Thinking Skills in Mobile Learning: Fact-Checking and Getting Rid of Cognitive Distortions <p>The study aims to reveal the attitude of students and teachers to mobile learning; explore the possibility of developing critical thinking skills in mobile learning; and also evaluate knowledge after a short training course involving the use of mobile technologies in the context of the development of critical thinking. The research relies on an interview and a test. It was attended by 275 people (93 teachers and 182 students). The results showed that 58% of teachers and 55% of students believe that mobile learning does not contribute to the development of critical thinking. The test results showed that the study participants who pre-listened to the course of lectures on their mobile devices did not cope with the questions well enough, and cognitive errors were identified. The research has shown that improving the skills of interpreting, analyzing, evaluating and explaining information can increase the effectiveness of mobile learning. The research is a contribution to the study of various aspects of the impact of mobile learning on students and will be of interest to teachers, students, academic administration, parents, as well as to those who are interested in modern pedagogy and educational psychology.</p> Yulia Gavronskaya, Liudmila Larchenkova , Anna Berestova , Valentina Latysheva , Sergei Smirnov Copyright (c) 2022 Yulia Gavronskaya, Liudmila Larchenkova , Anna Berestova , Valentina Latysheva , Sergei Smirnov Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Attitudes of Teachers to Using Information and Communication Technology in Teaching – Advantages and Obstacles <p>This paper analyses the attitudes of teachers to using information and communication technology in teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 269 teachers in the Republic of Serbia. The purpose of this research is to look at the intensity of ICT use in teaching, as well as to identify the benefits and obstacles that teachers face when using this technology. The study was based on a descriptive research methodology. Surveying and scaling techniques were used to measure the attitudes of teachers. It was concluded that teachers often use ICT in teaching. The greatest advantage of ICT use, as seen by teachers, is improved quality of teaching, a possibility to deliver interesting lessons and quick and easy access to information. The greatest obstacles emphasized by teachers were underdeveloped competencies of teachers, limited access to ICT in schools and insufficient trust in the use of new technologies. </p> Biljana Novković Cvetković, Zvezdan Arsić, Dragan Cenić Copyright (c) 2022 Biljana Novković Cvetković, Zvezdan Arsić, Dragan Cenić Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Digital Competencies in the Context of Preschool Music Education <p>Given the digitalization of modern society and the way a child acquires musical experiences, practitioners are expected to apply various media in everyday educational praxis. The theoretical framework of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is an approach that connects the knowledge of educators with Information and Communications Technology (ICT), concurrently developing technology-supported pedagogical knowledge and integration of technology into education. The paper aims to investigate educators’ self-assessment of their digital competencies and their implementation in musical activities with preschool children. The respondents are full-time and part-time graduate students of the Early Childhood and Preschool Education study program from faculties of teacher education in Croatia. The obtained results indicate that 91,1 % of respondents didn’t have any formal ICT education while 59,5 % didn’t have any additional type of music education except during their studies. Nevertheless, the greatest knowledge participants have shown on the competencies for using digital tools (CFUDT) scale succeeded by a technological knowledge (TK) scale of the adapted TPACK-TCCMA survey, thus the respondents rated their digital and ICT competencies exceedingly high unlike music and pedagogical competencies. Considering the results obtained, it can be concluded that additional attention should be given to the development of digital, music, and pedagogical competencies during studies that will be applicable in both music and other areas of education.</p> Blaženka Bačlija Sušić, Martina Mičija Palić Copyright (c) 2022 Blaženka Bačlija Sušić, Martina Mičija Palić Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies in Foreign Language Listening Comprehension at The Studies of Tourism – Students’ Preference and University Lecturers’ Utility Rating <p>Being the primary channel of incoming information in spoken communication, listening comprehension is one of the key skills of the second language acquisition to be mastered. Since it is a complex concept implying different types of knowledge, it is assumed nowadays that improving strategic behaviour of students would lead to a more efficient use of listening comprehension. Thus, the aim of the present study is to gain the insight into the strategic behaviour of the freshmen university students through testing cognitive and metacognitive strategy preferences. Moreover, the study included strategy utility rating by university lecturers. The study employed a questionnaire to draw data that were processed by means of mathematical statistics and utility value analysis, whereas the use of Pareto analysis pointed to the set of preferable strategies. The results obtained in the study testify to rather uniform preference ascribed to listening comprehension cognitive and metacognitive strategies by skilled and less skilled first-year university students. On the other hand, the results obtained by university lecturers are consistent with the current literature on the issue. Thus, the set of desirable strategies points to the cognitive strategies of linguistic inferencing, global prediction and academic and world elaboration, i.e. metacognitive strategies of monitoring, directed attention and evaluation as those contributing most to efficient listening comprehension.</p> Dragana Pešić Copyright (c) 2022 Dragana Pešić Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Psychological Well-Being as Cognitive-Emotional Component of Student Self-Regulated Learning <p>The manuscript reports the theoretical aspects of studying the concepts of students’ psychological well-being in the process of self-regulated learning. The essence of student psychological well-being through a prism of cognitive and emotional personality factors has been theoretically studied. The role of psychological well-being and its components in the process of self-regulated learning activities of HEI students has been described. Psychological well-being has been viewed as an integral indicator of the level of personality, which affects resistance, and manifests itself in subjectively tangible satisfaction and life satisfaction. Self-regulated learning has been considered as a metacognitive level of initiation, motivation, monitoring, evaluation and control of all kinds and forms of internal and external activities by the subject of learning, which are aimed at reaching the predetermined goals of learning, personal and professional self-development and self-realization. The results of empirical research with the use of K. Ryff’s questionnaire entitled “Scales of Psychological Well-being,” as adapted by S. Karskanova, allowed us to evaluate personal growth, positive relationships with others, goals in life, managing environment, autonomy and self-acceptance which are indicators of individuals’ psychological well-being. Methods of statistical data processing such as descriptive statistics (group median - Me, arithmetic mean - M, standard deviation - σ) and the Kruskal-Wallis test, confirmed the existence of a statistically significant linear age-related decrease in indicators on the “Autonomy” Scale for the senior students. Analysis of the empirical data on the levels of defined psychological well-being has showed a linear correlation between psychological well-being and its levels. It has been concluded that the cognitive-emotional aspects of psychological well-being of modern student youth in learning activities have been dominated by dependent types of self-regulation in learning. The results have indicated that the most appropriate means to improve the psychological well-being of students, as a component of the emotional and behavioral level, is the formation of their active life position, responsibility for their own activities, motivation and autonomy in self-regulated learning activities. Prospective directions for future research have been described.</p> Eduard Balashov Copyright (c) 2022 Eduard Balashov Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Encouraging Self-Regulated Learning in Kindergarten <p>This paper presents a part of the research carried out among educators in Slovenian kindergartens on the self-<br />regulated learning of children in kindergarten and the role of educators in this process. The aim of the research was to find out how educators self-assess their knowledge of self-regulated learning in relation to their level of education, workplace (educator and assistant educator), and work experience. The research was conducted in June and July 2021 via the 1Ka website for online surveys. The questionnaire was sent by e-mail to the kindergarten directors throughout Slovenia. One-way analysis of variance indicates that there are no significant differences on the scale of knowledge about self-regulation and self-regulated learning in relation to the level of education, F (4, 494) = 0.96, p&gt; 0.05. One-way analysis of variance indicates that there are statistically significant differences on the scale of knowledge about self-regulation and self-regulated learning in relation to work experience, F (3, 495) = 3.20, p = 0.023. LSD post hoc test was applied to examine the differences between individual groups. Educators and assistants with more than 31 years of service (AS = 3.62) have significantly higher results on the scale compared to those with up to 10 years of service (AS = 3, 40). as well as in relation to those with work experience from 11 to 20 years (AS = 3.39). Educators and assistants with more than 31 years of service (AS = 3.62) have significantly higher results on the scale compared to those with up to 10 years of service (AS = 3,40). ) as well as in relation to those with work experience from 11 to 20 years (AS = 3.39).</p> Ljiljana Gomerčić, Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec Copyright (c) 2022 Ljiljana Gomerčić, Jurka Lepičnik Vodopivec Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Investigation of Prospective Teachers’ Use of Mobile Technologies in Teaching Activities <p>The purpose of this research is to examine the pre-service teachers’ use of mobile technologies in teaching activities. In this study, the survey method, one of the research methods, was used. The 199 prospective teachers studying at the Faculty of Education, a private university in Northern Cyprus, were included in the workgroup of the research. The 5-point Likert-type scales were used to measure the frequencies of using mobile technologies in instructional activities, motivation, and attitudes towards mobile technologies, competencies in mobile technology use, and its social effects. It was found that social factors had the lowest effect on the use of mobile technologies. Additionally, no gender-based difference was found in the mobile use frequency, motivation, attitude, competency, and social impact of prospective teachers. Moreover, the frequency, motivation, attitudes, competency, and social impact levels of students from the Department of Computer and Instructional Technologies are significantly higher than those departments from Guidance and Psychological Counselling, Special Education, Music Teaching, Elementary School Mathematics Teacher Education, Department of Pre-School Teaching, Classroom Teaching Department, Social Sciences Teacher Education, Turkish Language Teaching. It was concluded that having problems for mobile learning activities that can be used in the scope of mobile learning significantly influences the frequency of use, motivation, attitude, competency, and social impact of the students. Along with this, it was found that the following factors, given in order of importance, are influential on the frequency of the use of mobile technologies by prospective teachers in instructional activities: motivation, attitude, competency, and social impact. </p> Hamza Fatih Sapanca, Omer Sami Kaya; Ata Taşpolat; Murat Tezer Copyright (c) 2022 Murat Tezer Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Comprehensive Analysis of The Activities of Russian Federal Universities <p>This article aims to fully investigate the activities of the Federal Universities of Russia in the context of various aspects of development and to find appropriate comprehensive assessment methods that can be applied to modern universities that meet the best global standards. The main methods of research are comparative analysis and the formation of qualimetric models based on synthetically selected evaluation criteria. Structural changes in the activities of Russian federal universities have been analyzed. Authors analyze scientific, educational and social activities and other parameters. Particular attention is paid to the development of the ecosystem of innovations in Russian federal universities, its constituent elements and the peculiarities of their functioning. The study provides an opportunity to combine various aspects in the model of university activities. The article presents a comparative analysis of the development of federal universities and their ranking by integrated assessment. The development of communication channels between the academic community and mass audiences was analyzed, also the publication activity of federal universities was evaluated. The authors propose the main methods and sources of collection, processing and verification of disparate information on the state of innovation ecosystems in Russian federal universities. The proposed methodology, unlike existing approaches, allows a comprehensive assessment of the successful and underdeveloped activities of modern universities in both statistics and dynamics. The conclusion of the work is the need for a comprehensive analysis of federal universities by building a qualification parametric model on a regular basis.</p> Daniel Petrosyants, Konstantin Simonov, Pavel Seleznev , Stanislav Mitrakhovich Copyright (c) 2022 Stanislav Mitrakhovich, Daniel Petrosyants, Konstantin Simonov, Pavel Seleznev Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 A Study of Primary School Teachers’ Tendencies Regarding the Usefulness of Dramatization in the Educational Process <p>In this article, we attempt to examine the general teachers’ attitudes towards dramatization and the differences that arise according to their major demographic elements, using inferential statistics methodology. Our sample consists of 60 (sixty) Greek teachers, of which 15 (fifteen) are male and 45 (forty-five) are female respondents. The teachers completed all questionnaire’s statements correctly (without missing values), allowing us to draw valuable conclusions on both their knowledge and their perspectives regarding the usefulness of dramatization in a school environment and the necessity of its inclusion in the educational process. The analysis focuses both on the general teachers’ tendencies and the existing differences that are caused according to the respondents’ sex, age, years of experience and their willingness of working with immigrant students. Our analysis is carried out via the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis and chi-square statistical tests. These statistical methods are ideal for the comparison of data resulting from questionnaires based on the Likert scale, providing trustworthy and valuable conclusions about the attitudes towards the inclusion of drama in the educational procedure. This paper reveals important existing differentiations in the viewpoints of Greek primary school teachers in terms of dramatization in education, while it brings out a quite positive attitude towards the benefits of including drama in the teaching process of primary schools.</p> Vasileios Papageorgiou Copyright (c) 2022 Vasileios Papagageorgiou Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Brain Mechanisms of Embodied Decision-Making <p>One of the ways to comprehend mental abilities of individuals is to examine their underlying neural processes and mechanisms. To explore the role of cingulate cortical neurons in “mental rehearsal“ immediately before every trial of appetitive instrumental task in well-trained animals, we analyzed recorded single-unit activity in relation to the task-relevant events during task trials and during delay periods inside each trial in the same animals. The results showed that neuronal activity in the rabbit posterior cingulate cortex during the delay consisted mostly of activity of those neurons which were specialized in relation to this task, though the delay periods were not intended to remember previous events. The data indicated that these neuronal groups are involved in the processes of unfolding planned future behavior. Sequences of neuronal events during the delay period (i.e. during” covert behavior” phase), used for decision making, depended on the role of neuron in overt behavior. During delay periods replays (or preplays) started with activity of very selective (“narrow selective”) neurons, specialized in relation to concrete behavioral acts, but late in the delay included activity of such “broadly selective” neurons which might have been related to movements similar in broad categories of behavior. Such results indicate that task-related neurons with different degree of selectivity are all involved in overt and covert phase of experience actualization, which might imply that decision making in rabbits is the embodied cognitive process.</p> Yuri Aleksandrov Iosifovich, Olga E. Svarnik, Andrei V. Rozhdestvin, Yuri V. Grinchenko Copyright (c) 2022 Aleksandrov Yuri Iosifovich, Olga E. Svarnik, Andrei V. Rozhdestvin , Yuri V. Grinchenko Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Is the Integrative Teaching Approach Beneficial for Learning? <p>Environmental protection contents are characterized by a wide range of interdisciplinarity. They are realized separately within the teaching of biology and geography (5th–8th grade) in elementary school in Serbia. Numerous concepts and facts are similar, especially within the content Nature Protection. The application of an integrative teaching approach in the realization of environmental protection contents in elementary schools was investigated. Pedagogical experiment with parallel groups of elementary school students was conducted by applying integrative teaching approach in the experimental (E) and traditional approach in control (C) groups of students. The data were obtained through the pre-test and post-test. Integrative teaching approach has proven to be effective in the realization of the above-mentioned program contents. </p> Jelena Milanković Jovanov, Anđelija Ivkov-Džigurski, Jelena Stanisavljević, Ljubica Ivanović Bibić, Marko D. Petrović, Smiljana Đukičin Vučković Copyright (c) 2022 Smiljana Đukičin Vučković Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Social Representations of Body: A Comparison in The Two Generations of Russian Women (Results of an Exploratory Study) <p>Body is a complex and polymorphic object that lies at the intersection of a number of dimensions: natural-social-cultural; individual-social; body-soul; flesh-spirit; private-public; visible-invisible; decent-indecent; real-virtual; health-illness. If the body is in the heart of psychological research, lay thinking analysis rests somewhat in the shadow of this research line. Following the ideas of the social representations theory, the aim of study was to reveal how the body was represented in groups of young and older Russian women. A total sample consisted of 314 Russian females (N=258 females formed the group of young females from 18 to 25 years old, Mage=19.73, SDage =1.56; N=56 females formed the group of older females aged from 39 to 55 years old, Mage=45.63, SDage =4.68). The snowball technique was used in order to recruit the participants, they were invited to fulfil the online questionnaire. A free-association technique was used. The data were analysed by using prototypical analysis. The obtained results shed light on the articulation of the two normative elements health-beauty in the social representations of body in the two generations of Russian women. The comparison of the hypothetical structure of social representations (my body, ideal body, female body) in the two age groups of Russian women reveals several points concerning the lay mentality as a matter of age. A further study to verify the hypothetical structure of the social representations of body in young and older Russian women is needed.</p> Inna Bovina, Nikolay Dvorianchikov, Darya Melnikova, Nikita Lavreshkin Copyright (c) 2022 Nikolay Dvorianchikov Wed, 31 Aug 2022 00:00:00 +0200