Measuring Inclusion in Vocational Education and Training through the Prism of Justice of Education




inclusion, justice, redistribution, recognition, representation, relationality


The highest possible level of inclusion and justice are the primary goals of most contemporary education systems, including vocational education and training. The Index for Inclusion, which was developed two decades ago, defines inclusion on three levels, i.e. policy, culture and practice, and provides a methodological framework for measuring the inclusive orientation of schools. This paper raises the question of whether the selected Index for Inclusion indicators can be used to also measure different dimensions of justice, which is defined as a multidimensional concept. The just redistribution of basic goods is complemented by recognition, representation and relationality. A study with the aim to determine the multidimensionality of the implementation of inclusivity in Vocational Education and Training institutions using statistical analysis was carried out. An online questionnaire was created and completed by 427 education professionals (head teachers, teachers and school counsellors) employed in vocational education and training. The dimensionality of the measured constructs was checked using a set of 28 variables with factor analysis, i.e. the Maximum Likelihood method and Varimax rotation. It was found that the statements that had been formulated on the basis of the Index for Inclusion can also be used to measure different dimensions of justice. The final version of the questionnaire (modified questionnaire), which contains a set of twenty items, adequately measures the redistribution and recognition aspects of justice, whereas the representation and relational aspects have proven to be two-dimensional concepts. A modified questionnaire could be a suitable starting point both for the self-evaluation of schools and a general measurement of inclusion in terms of justice.


Download data is not yet available.


Ainscow, M. (2023). Making Sense of Inclusion and Equity in Education: A Personal Journey. In J. Banks (Ed.), The Inclusion Dialogue: Debating Issues, Challenges and Tensions with Global Experts (pp. 6–22). New York: Routledge. DOI:

Akkan, B., & Buğra, A. (2020). Education and Justice: Inclusion, Exclusion and Belonging. In T. Knijn, & D. Lepianka (Eds.), Justice and Vulnerability in Europe: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 143-160). Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI:

Allan, J. (2023). Challenges and dilemmas in inclusive education. What we can learn from children. In J. Banks (Ed.), The Inclusion Dialogue Debating Issues, Challenges and Tensions with Global Experts (pp. 23–35). New York: Routledge. DOI:

Banks, J. (Ed.). (2023). The Inclusion Dialogue Debating Issues, Challenges and Tensions with Global Experts. New York: Routledge. DOI:

Booth, T., & Ainscow, M. (2002). Index for inclusion: Developing learning and participation in schools. Bristol: Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education.

Burke, J., Goriss-Hunter, A., & Emmett, S. (2023). Policy, Discourse and Epistemology in Inclusive Education. In S. Weuffen, J. Burke, M. Plunkett, A. Goriss-Hunte, & S. Emmett (Eds.), Inclusion, Equity, Diversity, and Social Justice in Education (pp. 13-27). Singapore: Springer. DOI:

Cankar, G., & Zupanc, D. (2020). Pravične možnosti izobraževanja v Sloveniji. Ljubljana: Državni izpitni center.

Christodoulou, J. A., Okano, K. H., Gove, A. K., McBride, C., Raihani, R., Strigel, C. I., Troncoso Perez, L., & Chakraborty, A. (2022). Diversity and social justice in education. In A. K. Duraiappah, N. M. van Atteveldt, G. Borst, S. Bugden, O. Ergas, T. Gilead, L. Gupta, J. Mercier, K. Pugh, N. C. Singh, & E. A. Vickers (Eds.), Reimagining education: The International Science and Evidence based Education Assessment (pp. 256-299). New Delhi: UNESCO, MGIEP.

Cochran-Smith, M., & Keefe, E. S. (2022). Strong equity: Repositioning teacher education for social change. Teachers College Record, 124(3), 9-41. DOI:

Dahl, H. M., Stoltz, P., & Willig, R. (2004). Recognition, redistribution and representation in capitalist global society: An interview with Nancy Fraser. Acta Sociologica, 47(4), 374-382. DOI:

Fraser, N. (2007). Feminist politics in the age of recognition: A two-dimensional approach to gender justice. Studies in Social Justice, 1(1), 23-35. DOI:

Fraser, N., & Honneth, A. (2003). Redistribution or Recognition?: A Political–Philosophical Exchange. New York: Verso.

González, T. (2012). Keeping Kids in Schools: Restorative Justice, Punitive Discipline, and the School to Prison Pipeline. Journal of Law & Education, 41(2), 281–335.

Haug, P. (2017). Understanding inclusive education: Ideals and reality. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 19(3), 206–217. DOI:

Inkluzija v poklicnem in strokovnem izobraževanju [Inclusion in Vocational Education and Training]. (2022).

Jeznik, K. (2015). From the acknowledgment to the recognition of children’s and adolescents’ identity. Sodobna pedagogika, 132(1), 28–45.

Kielblock, S., & Woodcock S. (2023). Who’s included and Who’s not? An analysis of instruments that measure teachers’ attudes towards inclusive educaton. Teaching and Teacher Educaton, 122, 1-13. DOI:

Knijn, T., Theuns, T., & Miklós, Z. (2020). Redistribution, recognition and representation: understanding justice across academic disciplines. In T. Knijn, & D. Lepianka (Eds.), Justice and Vulnerability in Europe: An Interdisciplinary Approach (pp. 54–72). Edward Elgar Publishing. DOI:

Lesar, I. (2013). Ideja inkluzije - med različnimi koncepti pravičnosti in etičnimi teorijami [The idea of inclusion – between various concepts of justice and ethical theories]. Sodobna Pedagogika, 130(2), 76–95.

Lesar, I. (2019). Izzivi pedagogike pri vpeljevanju inkluzivnosti v šolski sistem [The challenges of pedagogy by introducing inclusiveness into the school system]. Sodobna Pedagogika, 136(1), 50–69.

Lynch, K., & Baker, J. (2005). Equality in education: An equality of condition perspective. Theory and Research in Education, 3(2), 131–164. DOI:

Lynch, K., Baker, J., & Lyons, M. (2009). Affective equality: Love, care and injustice. London: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI:

Lynch, K., Kalaitzake, M., & Crean, M. (2021). Care and affective relations: Social justice and sociology. The Sociological Review, 69(1), 53-71. DOI:

Ministry of Education. (n.d.). Data on students with special needs in secondary education programs.

Opertti, R., Brady, J., & Duncombe, L. (2009). Moving forward: Inclusive education as the core of education for all. Prospects, 39(3), 205-214. DOI:

Pedagoški inštitut. (2023). PISA 2022: program mednarodne primerjave dosežkov učencev in učenk. Ljubljana: Pedagoški inštitut.

Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. DOI:

Reimagining our Futures Together: A New Social Contract for Education. (2021). International Commission on the Futures of Education, UNESCO.

Reindal, S. M. (2015). Discussing inclusive education: an inquiry into different interpretations and a search for ethical aspects of inclusion using the capabilities approach. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 31(1), 1–12. DOI:

Sellman, E., Cremin, H., & McCluskey, G. (2014). Restorative approaches to conflict in schools: Interdisciplinary perspectives on whole school approaches to managing relationships. London: Routledge. DOI:

Skubic Ermenc, K., Jeznik, K., & Mažgon, J. (2019). Inclusion – a general pedagogical concept. Hamburg: Verlag Dr. Kovač.

Strategy for integrating foreigners who are not citizens of the European Union into the cultural, economic and social life of the Republic of Slovenia. (2023).

Thomas, G. (2013). A review of thinking and research about inclusive education policy, with suggestions for a new kind of inclusive thinking. British Educational Research Journal, 39(3), 473–490. DOI:

Thorsborne, M., & Blood, P. (2013). Implementing restorative practice in schools: a practical guide to transforming school communities. J. Kingsley.

Warnock, M. (2010). Special educational needs: A new look. In M. Warnock, B. Norwich, & L. Terzi (Eds.), Special educational needs: A new look (pp. 11–46). London: Continuum. DOI:




How to Cite

Kristl, N., & Jeznik, K. (2024). Measuring Inclusion in Vocational Education and Training through the Prism of Justice of Education. International Journal of Cognitive Research in Science, Engineering and Education (IJCRSEE), 12(1), 103–117.



Received 2023-12-02
Accepted 2024-03-20
Published 2024-04-24